CleverAdvice > Regulatory environment > Amazon – REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT



Amazon is the world’s largest e-commerce marketplace, AI assistant provider, digital streaming and cloud computing platform as measured by revenue and market capitalization. It is one of the Big Four technology companies along with Google, Apple, and Facebook also known as GAFA.


  • Influencing the European Commission and the European Banking Association on the application of Strong Customer Authentication (SCA)


  • We developed a white paper related to online authentication and insights on when/how to apply SCA
  • The paper aimed at drawing the attention of both the payment industry and the regulators. In particular we aimed at influencing the European Banking Association’s Regulatory Technical Standards (RTS) issued in 2015 which mandated SCA to authorize all transactions with value above € 10
  • We provided evidence, analyzed facts and developed insights that were valued by both the EBA and the European Commission, with whom our experts met a few times


  • The final draft of the EBA’s Regulatory Technical Standards embrace several recommendations outlined in our paper – including link between risk-based authentication and fraud rate aimed at accurate exemption rules (art. 16 of the RTS (pg. 24-26))
  • The white paper was endorsed by five leading e-commerce associations,including Ecommerce Europe and EPIF)